Adthan: The Call to Prayer

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Description:  History, Virtue, and Method Prerequisites ·         Salah for Beginners II Objectives ·         Appreciate that the  Adthan  c...

Description: History, Virtue, and Method
Prerequisites
·       Salah for Beginners II
Objectives
·       Appreciate that the Adthan covers all the essentials of faith
·       Learn the history of the Adthan
·       Learn 6 virtues of Adthan
·       Learn different ways of making Adthan and iqamah
New Terms
·       Adthan, iqamah

Introduction

Linguistically, the term Adthan means “a proclamation”, and this is what is meant in the verse of the Quran:
“And a proclamation (adthan) from Allah and His messenger to all people on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the polytheists, and so is His messenger.” (Quran 9:3)
In religious context, the adthan is that proclamation made, consisting of specific “words of remembrance”, the time for an obligatory salah has begun. Throughout the Muslim world and in some places in the West, the caller to prayer announces five times a day from every mosque that it is time for prayer, to remember Allah, and to put aside all the cares of life to prepare for the worship of the Giver of Life.  The prayer “God is the Greatest” resonates through all semblances of civilization, through small towns to metropolises..
The Adthan covers all the essentials of the Islamic faith in a few words:
1.    It begins by proclaiming the greatness of Allah.
2.    It testifies to Allah’s tawhid and His exclusive right to worship.
3.    It denies shirk – the worship of everything besides Allah.
4.    The Adthan testifies that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
5.    It mentions belief in one of the greatest pillars of Islam: the salah prayer.
6.    Invites to the prayer and equates it with prosperity, salvation and success (in the hereafter)
7.    It affirms the reward for salah: prosperity for one who singles out Allah in tawhid, follows His Messenger, establishes the salah and other pillars of Islam.
8.    It implies the loss of one who does not respond to the Adthan and does not pray.

History of Adthan

The Adthan was prescribed during the first year after the Prophet migration to Medina.  It was taught in true visions to two companions and made part of Muslim life by the Prophet, may Allah praise him, himself.  Abdullah ibn Zaid, a companion of the Prophet, reported:
“When the Prophet was to order the use of a bell to call the people to prayer, he disliked it because it resembled the Christian practice.  While I was sleeping, a man came to me carrying a bell.  I said to him, ‘O slave of Allah, will you sell me that bell?’
He said, ‘What would you do with it?’
I replied, ‘I would call the people to prayer with it.’
He responded, ‘Shall I not guide you to something better than that?’
I said, ‘Certainly.’
He said, ‘You should say:
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah, ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lah,
ashhadu anna Muhammadar-Rasool-lal-lah
Hayya ‘alas-salah, hayyah ‘alas-salah
Hayya ‘alal-falah, hayya ‘alal-falah
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar. La ilaha illal-lah.’
Then he went a short distance away and said, ‘When you stand for the prayer, say:
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lah
Hayya ‘alas-salah, hayya ‘alal-falah
Qad qaamatis-salah, qad qaamatis-salah
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar. La ilaha illal-lah.’
When the morning came, I went to the Messenger of Allah to tell him what I had seen.  He said, ‘Your dream is true, Allah willing.  Go to Bilal, tell him what you have seen, and tell him to make the call to prayer, for he has the best voice among you.’ I went to Bilal and told him what to do, and he made the call to prayer.  ‘Umar was in his house when he heard it.  He came out with his cloak, saying ‘By the One who has raised you with the truth, I saw similar to what he saw.’ The Prophet said, ‘All praise is to Allah.’”[1]
The Prophet appointed two companions to call the Adthan in Medina in his mosque: Bilal, a former African slave whose freedom was bought by Abu Bakr, and Ibn Umm Maktum for the Adthan of Fajr.  He also appointed Abu Mah-zura in Mecca and Sa’ad al-Qaraz in Quba’.

The Virtues of Adthan

Many ahadeeth of our Prophet Muhammad describe the virtues of the Adthan and the one who calls it:
(1)  “If the people knew what was in the Adthan and the first row (of the prayer in virtue), and that they could not get it save by drawing lots, they would draw lots.”[2]
The meaning of this hadith is that if the people knew the abundant reward in calling theAdthan, and could not find any way to call the Adthan except by drawing lots, then they would do that to attain its virtue.
(2)  “The callers to prayer will have the longest necks of all people on the Day of Resurrection.”[3]
This meaning of this hadith is explained to be that they will be masters and leaders, as the Arabs describe leaders as having long necks, or it means they will have the most good deeds to their credit.
(3)  “Allah and His angels send blessings upon the front row, and the caller to prayer is forgiven as far as his voice reaches, and whatever hears him, animate or inanimate, confirms what he says, and he will have a reward like that of those who pray with him.”[4]
(4)  “Your Lord, the Exalted, is amazed (and pleased) by one who is watching sheep in his pasture, then goes to the mountain to make the call to prayer and pray.  Allah, the Exalted, says, ‘Look at my slave there who makes the call to prayer and establishes the prayer out of fear of Me.  I have forgiven my slave and have allowed him to enter Paradise.”‘[5]
(5)  “The imam is a guarantor, and the caller to prayer is one who is given the trust.  O Allah, guide the imam and forgive the caller to prayer.”[6]
(6)  “Whoever gives the call to prayer for twelve years will be guaranteed Paradise, and for each day sixty good deeds will be recorded for him by virtue of his Adthan, and thirty good deeds by virtue of his iqama.”[7]

How is The Adthan Called?

Here are the wordings of the Adthan.
Allahu akbar  Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbarAllah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah I testify there is no true god but Allah
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah I testify there is no true god but Allah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lahI testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lahI testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Hayya ‘alas-salah Come to prayer
Hayya ‘alas-salah Come to prayer
Hayya ‘alal-falah Come to success
Hayya ‘alal-falahCome to success
Allahu akbar God is the Greatest
Allahu akbar God is the Greatest
La ilaha illal-lah[8]
There is no true god but Allah


Footnotes:
[1] AhmadAbu DawudIbn MajahAl-Tirmidhi
[2] Saheeh Al-Bukhari and others
[3] AhmadSaheeh MuslimIbn Majah
[4] Nasai
[5] AhmadAbu DawudNasai
[6] Al-Tirmidhi
[7] Ibn Majah
[8] AhmadAbu DawudIbn MajahAl-Tirmidhi

Adthan (part 2 of 2): The Call to Prayer

Description: Etiquette, Iqama, & Special Prayers
Prerequisites
·       Salah for Beginners II
·       Adthan: The Call To Prayer
Objectives
·       Identify the additional phrase said in the Adthan of Fajr
·       Learn what is the iqama
·       Learn two different ways the iqama is made
·       Learn the etiquette of calling the Adthan
·       Know the regulations of Adthan for women
·       Learn how to respond to the Adthan
·       Learn the supplication after the Adthan
·       Learn the ruling of leaving the mosque after the Adthan is called and before the salah
New Terms
·       Adthan, Iqamah

“Prayer is better than sleep” in Adthan for Fajr

The Adthan for Fajr salah has the additional words
As-salaatu khairun min an-naumThe prayer is better than sleep
The Prophet taught,
“If it is the morning Adthan, say,
as-salaatu khairun min an-naum, as-salaatu khariun min annaum.  Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar.  La illaha illal-lah.”[1]

Iqama

Right before the salah starts, the faithful are called again to let them know the prayer is about to begin.  This call to prayer is called the Iqama:

(I)

Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbarAllah is the Greatest
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lahI testify there is no true Allah but Allah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lahI testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Hayya ‘alas-salahCome to prayer
Hayya ‘alal-falahCome to success
Qad qaamat is-salahPrayer is about to begin
Qad qaamat is-salahPrayer is about to begin
Allahu akbarAllah is the Greatest
Allahu akbarAllah is the Greatest
La ilaha illal-lah[2]
There is no true Allah but Allah

(II)

Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah I testify there is no true Allah but Allah
Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah I testify there is no true Allah but Allah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lahI testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasool-lal-lahI testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Hayya ‘alas-salah Come to prayer
Hayya ‘alas-salah Come to prayer
Hayya ‘alal-falah Come to success
Hayya ‘alal-falahCome to success
Qad qaamat is-salahPrayer is about to begin
Qad qaamat is-salahPrayer is about to begin
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
Allahu akbar Allah is the Greatest
La ilaha illal-lah[3]
There is no true Allah but Allah

Etiquette of Calling the Adthan

(1)  It is recommended for the man calling the Adthan should be clean from major or minor impurities.
(2)  The Adthan is given standing and facing the qiblah (the direction of the Kabah).
(3)      The caller turns with his head to the right upon saying “Hayya ‘alas-salah” and to the left upon saying “Hayya ‘alal-falah.”
(5)  The index finger is put in the ears.
(6)  The voice is to be raised, even if a man is alone.  Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, one of the Prophet’s companions, said to one of his students, “I see that you love the sheep and the desert.  If you are with your sheep or in the desert, then raise your voice while making the call to prayer, for any jinn, human or thing within hearing distance of your voice will be a witness for you on the Day of Resurrection...I heard the Messenger of Allah say that.”[4]
(8)  It is better not to speak to a man while he is calling the Adthan or iqama.
Figure 1 ‘The Muezzin’s Call to Prayer’ from the Wallace Collection, London, by Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904) a French painter.

Women & Adthan

Can a woman call the Adthan around men, or among a group of Muslim women, or if she is by herself? By the agreement of Muslim scholars, a Muslim woman is forbidden to call theAdthan in the company of men.  Allah has not charged her with calling the worshippers to the mosque.  However, if she is in a group of Muslim women or by herself, she may call theAdthan and iqama in a low voice.

Responding To the Adthan

It is preferred for one who is reciting the Quran, engaged in dhikr (Allah’s remembrance), or studying, that he stop what he is doing and repeat the Adthan after the caller to prayer.  After it is over, one may resume.  A person repeats each phrase after the Adthan, except for the part:
Hayya ‘alas-salah                 the response is     La haula wa la quwatah illa billah
Hayya ‘alal-falah                  the response is     La haula wa la quwatah illa billah
The Prophet said:
‘La haula wa la quwatah illa billah (there is no ability or power except from Allah) is one of the treasures of Paradise.’[5]

Supplication after the Adthan

On the Day of Judgment Prophet Muhammad will be an advocate for a person who supplicates to Allah with the special words he taught after hearing the Adthan.  The Messenger of Allah, may Allah praise him, said:
“If you hear the call to prayer, repeat after it.  Then supplicate for me, for whoever makes one supplication for me, Allah makes ten for him.  Then ask Allah to grant me the place of wasilah.  It is a place in Paradise reserved for one of the slaves of Allah.  I hope to be him, and whoever asks Allah to grant me the place of wasilah, my intercession becomes permissible for him.” (Saheeh Muslim)
In another hadith, the Prophet taught the supplication:
“Whoever says (after) hearing the call to prayer,
‘Allaahumma Rabba haa-zihi’l-da’wat il-taammah wa’l-salaat ul-qaa’imah, aati Muhammada nil waseelata wa’l-fadeelah, wab’athhu maqaaman mahmooda nil lazi wa’at-ta.
‘O Allah, Lord of this complete call and of the established prayers, grant Muhammad the place of wasilah, the most virtuous place and raise him to a praiseworthy position that you have promised him,’
…will have my intercession made permissible for him on the Day of Judgment.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)
One can also make individual supplications after the Adthan, as that is one of the blessed times when the supplications are likely be accepted.  The Prophet, may Allah praise him, said:
“Supplication (du’a) is not rejected between the Adthan and iqamah, so supplicate.” (Al-TirmidhiAbu Dawud)

Leaving the Mosque after the Adthan and Before the Salah

It is not allowed to leave the mosque after the Adthan has been called, unless there is a valid reason or one has the intention to return for the prayer.  The Prophet told his companions:
“If one of you is in the mosque and the call is made, he should not leave the mosque until he prays.” (Ahmad)


Footnotes:
[1] AhmadAbu Dawud
[2] AhmadAbu DawudIbn MajahAl-Tirmidhi
[3] Abu DawudAl-TirmidhiNasaiIbn Majah
[4] AhmadSaheeh Al-BukhariNasaiIbn Majah
[5] Saheeh Al-BukhariSaheeh Muslim

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Jama Masjid: Adthan: The Call to Prayer
Adthan: The Call to Prayer
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